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The Impact of Tourism on child's cultural rights in Myanmar
- Since the enforcement of 2008 Constitution in Myanmar, Myanmar has seen an extremely rapid and intense development of its tourism industry. The tourism industry relies on the cultural and natural heritages in Myanmar. It is recognized that cultural tourism is one of the largest and fastest-growing of the State’s tourism markets. Myanmar has diverse cultures that is both intangible and tangible. In parallel with the tourism development in the country’s tourist sites, there are working children in those tourist sites. Children are economically abused by exploiting their intelligence and cultural diversities. It leads to the gross violation of child’s cultural rights such as the rights to rest and leisure, to travel and to enjoy the holidays. This is contrary to the International Covenant of the Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1966, the UN Convention on Rights of the Child 1992, and the Manila Declaration of World Tourism 1995 which are applicable to Myanmar. Myanmar children work behind the scenes of the tourism industry whether in the hotels, around the temples, near the lakes and public square areas. This paper focuses on Myanmar’s cultural heritage and tourism policy. Then, it explores how children are affected by the tourism industry such as through sexual exploitation, child begging and child trafficking. This paper presents its main findings and recommendations that are established from the facts and data of desk research and semi-structured interviews with respondent children.
Su Yin Htun
- Children’s Rights in the Tourism Industry: The Cases of Vietnam and Myanmar